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Yoga Sutras
Sutra 1.8

viparyayo mithyā-jñānam atad-rūpa-pratiṣṭham

"Mistaken perception involves an incorrect comprehension built upon a basis disconnected from reality."

Translated - Swami Satchidananda

This sutra delves into the nature of inaccurate cognition and its foundation. Let's break down the meaning of each segment: Viparyaya: This term refers to "misconception" or "misapprehension." It signifies a cognitive error where one mistakenly perceives something contrary to its actual nature. In other words, it's a mental distortion that leads to a false understanding. Mithyā-jñānam: This part can be translated as "false knowledge" or "incorrect understanding." It implies having knowledge or beliefs that do not align with reality. Atad-rūpa-pratiṣṭham: This segment can be understood as "being based on what is not real." "Atad" means "not that," "rūpa" means "form," and "pratiṣṭham" means "foundation" or "basis." This sutra reflects the notion that misconceptions and false beliefs arise when our understanding is founded upon an inaccurate perception or misinterpretation of reality. It highlights the importance of accurate perception and understanding as a basis for forming reliable knowledge.
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